PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, suppresses glioblastoma stem cells by inhibiting GRP78 and inducing programmed necroptotic cell death

Sharmistha Chakraborty, Daoyan Wei, Megan Tran, Frederick F Lang, Robert A Newman, Peiying Yang
Neoplasia,Volume 54, 2024, 101008, ISSN 1476-5586
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2024.101008

PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, suppresses glioblastoma stem cells by inhibiting GRP78 and inducing programmed necroptotic cell death

Successful treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive form of primary brain neoplasm, mandates the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the potential of PBI-05204 in targeting GBM stem cells (GSCs) and the underlying mechanisms. Treatment with PBI-05204 significantly reduced both the number and size of tumor spheres derived from patient-derived GSCs (GBM9, GSC28 and TS543), and suppressed the tumorigenesis of GBM9 xenografts. Moreover, PBI-05204 treatment led to a significant decrease in the expression of CD44 and NANOG, crucial markers of progenitor stem cells, in GBM9 and GSC28 GSCs. This treatment also down-regulated GRP78 expression in both GSC types. Knocking down GRP78 expression through GRP78 siRNA transfection in GBM9 and GSC28 GSCs also resulted in reduced spheroid size and CD44 expression. Combining PBI-05204 with GRP78 siRNA further decreased spheroid numbers compared to GRP78 siRNA treatment alone. PBI-05204 treatment led to increased expression of pRIP1K and pRIP3K, along with enhanced binding of RIPK1/RIPK3 in GBM9 and GSC28 cells, resembling the effects observed in GRP78-silenced GSCs, suggesting that PBI-05204 induced necroptosis in these cells. Furthermore, oleandrin, a principle active cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, showed the ability to inhibit the self-renewal capacity in GSCs. These findings highlight the potential of PBI-05204 as a promising candidate for the development of novel therapies that target GBM stem cells.

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