Jensen, G.S.; Yu, L.; Iloba, I.; Cruickshank, D.; Matos, J.R.; Newman, R.A.
Molecules 2023, 28, 4799.
Differential Activities of the Botanical Extract PBI-05204 and Oleandrin on Innate Immune Functions under Viral Challenge Versus Inflammatory Culture Conditions
The Nerium oleander extract PBI 05204 (PBI) and its cardiac glycoside constituent oleandrin have direct anti-viral properties. Their effect on the immune system, however, is largely unknown. We used an in vitro model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to document effects under three different culture conditions: normal, challenged with the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid Poly I:C, and inflamed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were evaluated for immune activation marks CD69, CD25, and CD107a, and culture supernatants were tested for cytokines. Both PBI and oleandrin directly activated Natural Killer (NK) cells and monocytes and triggered increased production of cytokines. Under viral mimetic challenge, PBI and oleandrin enhanced the Poly I:C-mediated immune activation of monocytes and NK cells and enhanced production of IFN-γ. Under inflammatory conditions, many cytokines were controlled at similar levels as in cultures treated with PBI and oleandrin without inflammation. PBI triggered higher levels of some cytokines than oleandrin. Both products increased T cell cytotoxic attack on malignant target cells, strongest by PBI. The results show that PBI and oleandrin directly activate innate immune cells, enhance anti-viral immune responses through NK cell activation and IFN-γ levels, and modulate immune responses under inflamed conditions. The potential clinical impact of these activities is discussed.