Received 14 April 2022, Revised 13 June 2022, Accepted 23 June 2022, Available online 27 June 2022, Version of Record 2 July 2022.
This article encourages future studies to verify the applicability of oleandrin in antineoplastic therapeutic protocols, human and veterinary medicine, the investigation of antimetastatic properties, as well as the potential increase in patient survival and the decrease of tumor markers.
Oleandrin, a cardiac glycoside isolated from the leaves of Nerium oleander, has known effects on the heart. Evidence from recent studies have highlighted its potential for anticancer properties. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of oleandrin on cancer cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We performed a systematic search in six electronic databases up to Jan 2022. We extracted information about the effects of oleandrin on cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest in in vitro studies, and the effects on tumor size and volume in animal experimental models. We have retrieved 775 scientific studies. 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. They investigated the effects of oleandrin on breast, lung, pancreatic, colon, prostate, colorectal, oral, ovarian, glioma, melanoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and histiocytic lymphoma cancers. Overall, in vitro studies demonstrated that oleandrin was able to inhibit cell proliferation, decrease cell viability, and induce apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest. In addition, oleandrin had an effect on reducing mean tumor size and volume in animal studies. Oleandrin, as a cytotoxic agent, demonstrated antitumor effects in different types of cancers, however important clinical limitations remain a concern. These results encourage future studies to verify the applicability of oleandrin in antineoplastic therapeutic protocols human and veterinary medicine, the investigation of antimetastatic properties, as well as the potential increase in patient survival and the decrease of tumor markers.